ترجمه متون تخصصی رشته زمین شناسی اعم از مقالات معتبر و کتب تخصصی انواع پژوهشات و دیگر متون تخصصی رشته زمین شناسی توسط سامانهملی ترجمه صورت بپذیرد .گروه تخصصی سامانهملی ترجمه برای افزایش کیفیت سفارشات صورت گرفته و افزایش رضایت کاربران عزیز شروع به استخدام مترجم این حرفه ای و تحصیل کرده در مقاطع عالی و دکترای رشته تخصصی زمین شناسی نموده است.
از این رو با اطمینان کامل تضمین کننده سفارشات خود می باشد فواید استفاده از مترجمین حرفهای و تحصیلکرده مرتبط با زمینه محتوای سفارشات میتوان به آشنایی کامل این مترجم با دایره لغات تخصصی رشته مورد نظر همانند رشته تخصصی زمین شناسی را ذکر نمود همچنین مترجمی آشنایی کامل با قواعد دستوری زبان انگلیسی را دارا می باشد که میتواند از این مهارت بیشتر در سفارشات ترجمه فارسی به انگلیسی بهره ببرند .
مطالعه متن سفارشات ترجمه شده توسط مترجم با ویژگی های ذکر شده می تواند روند مطالعه را بهبود نماید زیرا محتوای ترجمه شده دارای انسجام متن محتوا و زمان مطالعه را به طور چشمگیری کاهش می دهد .
بلکه مترجم را با توجه به محتوای سفارشات از متخصص ترین مترجم یعنی از مترجمی که در گرایش مربوط به محتوای سفارشات تحصیل کرده است استفاده می نماییم. دلیل این عملکرد تفاوت چشمگیر لغات تخصصی در گرایشات مختلف رشته زمین شناسی می باشد.
به طور مثال لغات و اصطلاحات تخصصی و پرکاربرد گرایش آب شناسی و گرایش سنگ شناسی رسوبی زمین تفاوت چشمگیری را دارا می باشد. که جهت رعایت این فاکتور با توجه به تحصیلات مترجمان در مقاطع عالی ارشد و دکتری انتخاب بهترین مترجم صورت می گیرد.
به ظور مثال استفاده از مترجم در گرایشات دیگر رشته تخصصی زمین شناسی نمی تواند به خوبی از عهده ترجمه با کیفیت گرایش تخصصی زمین شناسی نفت بر آید. در راستای این هدف سامانهملی ترجمه تمام سعی خود را بر آن ساخته که در زمینه سفارش ترجمات گوناگونی در گرایش های مختلف مترجمین تحصیل کرده و قبول شده در آزمون های استاندارد را برای انجام سفارشات با سطح کیفی بالا قرار داده است.
New insights into geology and geochemistry of the Kerch seep area in the Black Sea
High-resolution 3D seismic data in combination with deep-towed sidescan sonar data and porewater analysis give insights into the seafloor expression and the plumbing system of the actively gas emitting Kerch seep area, which is located in the northeastern Black Sea in around 900 m water depth, i.e. well within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). Our analysis shows that the Kerch seep consists of three closely spaced but individual seeps above a paleo-channel-levee system of the Don Kuban deep-sea fan. We show that mounded seep morphology results from sediment up-doming due to gas overpressure. Each of the seeps hosts its own gas pocket underneath the domes which are fed with methane of predominantly microbial origin along narrow pipes through the GHSZ. Methane transport occurs dominantly in the form of gas bubbles decoupled from fluid advection. Elevated sediment temperatures of up to 0.3 °C above background values are most likely the result of gas hydrate formation within the uppermost 10 m of the sediment column. Compared to other seeps occurring within the GHSZ in the Black Sea overall only scarce gas indications are present in geoacoustic and geophysical data. Transport-reaction modeling suggests that the Kerch seep is a young seep far from steady state and probably not more than 500 years old.
Geology, igneous geochemistry, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kougarok tin-tantalum-lithium prospect, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA
The Kougarok prospect is situated in a Sn-W (+Ta, Nb, Li, Be) metallogenic belt formed in a post-collisional to within-plate tectonic environment. Crystal fractionation of granitic magma, combined with its mixing/mingling with mantle-derived mafic magma, is proposed as the major process causing the formation of the complex B-rich to Li-F-type granitic suite and associated Sn-rare metal (Ta, Nb, Li) mineralization. An intrusion of alkalic (potassic lamprophyric) mafic magma into a crystallizing biotite-tourmaline granite magma reservoir may have supplied a geochemically distinct assemblage of volatiles (F) and associated metals (Li, Ta, Nb) into the boron- and Sn-rich granitic system. An alternative model considers differentiation-driven unmixing of mafic and granitic silicate melts sequestering different volatile and mineralizing species that could also trigger magma-fluid and fluid-fluid unmixing, with separation of gaseous fluid coexisting with immiscible granitic and mafic magmas in the form of magmatic melt-fluid-crystal “suspension.” Biotite-tourmaline granite was accompanied by early quartz-tourmaline-cassiterite greisen at > 430–380 °C followed by quartz-tourmaline-chlorite-cassiterite stockwork at < 350 °C. The immiscibility of F- and B-rich fluids was followed by preferred ascent of F-rich fluids upward in the granitic magma reservoir, with its strong enrichment in F, Li, Ta, and Nb and subsequent crystallization of zinnwaldite granite at a shallower level, with separation of homogenous high-salinity magmatic fluid at ~ 600 °C. Crystallization and fluid exsolution continued at lower temperatures, followed by formation of topaz-quartz stockscheider at 550–500 °C. Ta-Nb mineralization in the uppermost part of the zinnwaldite granite appears to be associated with final episodes of magmatic crystallization, particularly W-Nb-rutile and columbite-tantalite with a higher Nb content. Some Ta-Nb minerals, such as columbite-tantalite with a higher Ta content, appear to be also stable during the post-magmatic stage, in quartz-tourmaline+topaz greisen and higher-temperature quartz-albite-Li mica alteration that replace zinnwaldite granite at ~ 500 to 400 °C. Nearly contemporaneous, lower-temperature quartz-albite-Li mica alteration and quartz-muscovite, quartz-topaz, and quartz-fluorite greisens formed from boiling fluids at 390–350 °C and caused removal of Ta-Nb minerals. Instead, fluid cooling and neutralization of boiling fluids affected Sn solubility and promoted massive cassiterite deposition in the late greisens. The latest phyllic quartz-sericite-carbonate alteration assemblage, comprising arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and other sulfides, native Bi, and Bi tellurides, formed from boiling fluids at < 310 °C.
Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of igneous rocks from the Dongbulage porphyry Mo deposit, Great Hinggan Range, NE China: Constraints from geology, geochronology, and isotope geochemistry
The Dongbulage porphyry Mo deposit is a recently discovered deposit located in the Huanggang–Ganzhuermiao polymetallic metallogenic belt of Inner Mongolia, NE China. Here, we present zircon U–Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions, and whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic data, for magmatic rocks associated with Mo mineralisation to constrain the age and petrogenesis of these rocks. The rocks are dominated by mineralised granite porphyries, quartz-monzonites, and rhyolite. Zircon U–Pb dating shows that the ore-bearing granite porphyries have ages of 154.4 ± 3.5, 155.4 ± 1.1, and 158.7 ± 0.6 Ma, the quartz-monzonites have ages of 157.8 ± 1.6 and 166.5 ± 1.3 Ma, and the rhyolite has an age of 172.9 ± 3.0 Ma. The granite porphyries and rhyolites are characterised by high K2O and SiO2 contents, enrichment in light rare-earth elements, strong negative Eu anomalies, and pronounced depletion in Ba, Nb, Ta, Sr, P, and Ti. The quartz-monzonites show enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (Rb and K), are depleted in heavy rare-earth elements, Nb, Ta, Sr, P, and Ti, and exhibit weak negative Eu anomalies. All of the rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7022–0.7064) and εNd(t) values (−3.62 to +3.99), positive εHf(t) values (+1.1 to +13.8), and young two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TC DM(Nd) = 623–1240 Ma and TC DM(Hf) = 305–1108 Ma, respectively). Whole-rock Pb isotopic compositions show a narrow range of values, with 206Pb/204Pb = 18.314–19.116, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.573–15.595, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.731–39.296, which, together with their Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions, indicate the dominance of a mantle source component. The isotopic data suggest that the Dongbulage magmatic rocks were derived from partial melting of juvenile lower crust. The granite porphyries are highly evolved I-type magmas with geochemical characteristics similar to those of porphyry granitoids associated with Mo mineralisation in the Great Hinggan Range. On the basis of the regional geology and geochemistry, we suggest that the Dongbulage porphyry Mo deposit formed in a subduction setting associated with southward subduction of the Mongol–Okhotsk oceanic plate.
Genesis of the Songhung gold-polymetallic deposit in the Hoechang district, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Constraints from Geology, Petrochemistry and Pb–S–C–O isotope geochemistry
The Songhung deposit is located in the southwestern part of the Yangdok Uplift Zone (YUZ) in the northern part of the Pyongnam Basin in the Sino–Korean Craton. Most of large– and small–scale gold deposits and occurrences were discovered and exploited in the western part of the YUZ. Several tectonic events in this area are the key to understanding the gold and polymetallic mineralization in the Sonhung deposit. The YUZ comprises the Neoarchean Rangnim Metamorphic Belt, Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic rocks in the central domain, and granitoid intrusions of crustal and mantle derivation (Yangdok granitoid intrusions). Two extensive NNE–trending fault zones with mylonitized rocks are interpreted to represent detachment fault and two NE–SW–trending regional rift structures represent zones of subsidence (e.g., the Tokchon–Maengsan to the west, the Kowon to the east) and the Junghwa–Samdung subsidence to the south. It is suggested that the YUZ is a metamorphic core complex (MCC), similar to those in the North China Craton (NCC).
Polymetallic mineralization in the Songhung deposit is divided into early and late stages. The early mineralization was formed during compressional deformation in the Triassic accompanied by low–grade metamorphism of the sedimentary host rocks. Variations in Pb, S, C and O isotope ratios indicate that the ore–forming fluids and metals were derived from the country rocks. The Au grade is insignificant in this style of mineralization. The main gold–polymetallic mineralization in the Songhung deposit is related to tectonic extension of the region; the Pb, S, C and O isotope data indicate that these elements, as well as ore–forming fluids, could be derived from both the granitic intrusion (Yangdok granitoid) and the Proterozoic and Paleozoic country rocks.
New frontiers in calcium stable isotope geochemistry: Perspectives in present and past vertebrate biology
Beyond their established uses in Earth and Planetary sciences, calcium (Ca) isotopes have a promising future in the study of the biology of present and past vertebrates, including humans. Early work paved the way to the ongoing research on the potential of Ca isotopes as relevant tools to disciplines other than geology, including palaeobiology, bioarchaeology and biomedical research. In this article, we first review the rationale behind the cycling of Ca isotopes in vertebrate organisms. We then summarize and discuss the use of Ca isotopes as dietary tracers from trophic reconstructions in past vertebrate ecosystems to the tracking of early life dietary transitions. Next, we review and examine the research outcomes on the potential of Ca isotopes as biomarkers of bone loss in physiological and pathological conditions such as bone cancers and osteoporosis. While emphasizing the needs of future research in each of these applications, we suggest new potential uses of Ca isotopes in vertebrate biology. Finally, we identify challenges and barriers faced when developing such interdisciplinary projects and suggest how these can be overcome.
Geochemistry of the highly evolved Sn-W-Mo-bearing Mount Douglas Granite, New Brunswick, Canada: Implications for origin and mineralization
The Late Devonian (368 ± 1 Ma) post-orogenic peraluminous Mount Douglas Granite, located in southwestern New Brunswick, Canada, forms the eastern part of the Saint George Batholith. The batholith was emplaced following the accretion of the Gander and Avalon zones of the northern Appalachians during the Neoacadian Orogeny. The Mount Douglas Granite is divided into three units, Dmd1, Dmd2, and Dmd3, that formed by progressive high degrees of fractional crystallization. The two most fractionated units, i.e., Dmd2 and Dmd3, are locally associated with greisen/sheeted veins-related endogranitic Sn-W-Mo mineralization. Whole-rock δ18O values of +6.0 to +7.3‰, high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70550 to 0.71665, slightly positive εNd(368 Ma) values (+0.3 to +1.1), and Pb isotopic data indicate that the granite was derived dominantly from partial melting of juvenile Avalonian crust, contaminated by supracrustal rocks.
Petrochemical features support the idea of multiple periods of fractional crystallization at lower temperatures producing compositionally more evolved magmas. This is supported by estimated zircon saturation temperatures that decrease from Dmd1 (747–826 °C) → Dmd2 (733–817 °C) → Dmd3 (729–816 °C). The estimated crystallization pressure based on normative quartz and feldspar (albite + orthoclase) contents also decreases with increasing silica content, from 2.3 kbar (~7.7 km) in Dmd1 to 0.3 kbar (~1 km) in Dmd3.
Whole-rock geochemical characteristics of this system show that unit Dmd3 is the most highly evolved unit; it has the highest SiO2 (avg. 76.4 wt.%.), LILE contents (e.g., Li, Rb, Cs), Rb/Sr (mean = 42), certain HFSE (Ta, Th, U) including Y (≤138 ppm), and REE, and has the most pronounced negative Eu anomalies (avg. Eu/Eu* = 0.08) and the lowest K/Rb (70–127), Nb/Ta (mean = 4.9), and Zr/Hf (mean = 23.5). Therefore, unit Dmd3 with the highest content of incompatible elements is the most prospective for Sn, W, Zn, Bi, and U mineralization, and then Dmd2.