ترجمه تخصصی متون گفتار درمانی از جمله رشتههای تخصصی به حساب میآید که ما به صورت ضروری و لازم برای ترجمه متون تخصصی برای ترجمه تخصصی متون گفتاردرمانی نیازمند یک مترجم حرفه ای می باشیم .زیرا برای ترجمه تخصصی متون گفتاردرمانی دیکشنری های موجود در گوگل و اپلیکیشن های دیگر پاسخگوی ترجمه تخصصی متون گفتاردرمانی نمی باشد .به طور قطع استفاده از دیکشنری های گوناگون علاوه بر زمان بر بودن مسیر برای ترجمه متون تخصصی، نمیتواند دانشجویان رشته تخصصی گفتاردرمانی را برای داشتن ترجمه تخصصی با کیفیت و با رعایت استانداردهای بین المللی یاری نماید .رشته تخصصی گفتاردرمانی از گرایشات متعدد علوم تجربی می باشد.
برای ترجمه تخصصی متون گفتاردرمانی داشتن مترجمین متخصص و دارای تجربه در گرایش مربوط به خود ضروری می باشد که مترجمین دارای تحصیلات عالی ارشد و دکترا در رشته تخصصی خود بوده است.
همچنین با مباحث زبان شناسی ،روان شناسی، آناتومی و فیزیولوژی اندام های گفتاری و بحثهای مرتبط با رشته تخصصی گفتار درمانی به طور کامل آشنایی داشته باشند. ضرورت استفاده از مترجمین متخصص تحصیل کرده در رشته تخصصی گفتاردرمانی به دلیل ضرورت آشنایی مترجم با مباحث صوت ،زبان ،اختلالات کلامی و صوتی ،مباحث روانشناسی و رفتارشناسی می باشد .همچنین از خصوصیات یک مترجم متخصص و تحصیلکرده آشنایی نسبتاً کامل با دایره لغات تخصصی و مربوط به گرایشات رشته تخصصی گفتار درمانی می باشد ،همچنین از چنین مترجمی انتظار میرود اصطلاحات پرکاربرد و تخصصی رشته تخصصی گفتار درمانی را به طور کامل آموزش دیده باشد. مترجمین متخصص در رشته تخصص کاردرمانی با خصوصیات ذکر شده به آسانی میتوانند از عهده ترجمه تخصصی متون گفتار درمانی از فارسی به انگلیسی و انگلیسی به فارسی متون تخصصی متعدد همان همانند ترجمه تخصصی مقالات، ترجمه تخصصی کتب رشته گفتار درمانی به خوبی برآیند.
ترجمه گفتار درمانی به انگلیسی عموما برای پژوهشگران و دانشجویان تحصیل کرده در مقاطع عالی ارشد و دکترا برای ترجمه مقالات پر محتوای آنها و تبدیل آن به زبان بین الملل استفاده می شود. برای ترجمه گفتار درمانی به انگلیسی مترجمان متخصص تحصیل کرده در رشته تخصصی گفتار درمانی با چالش بزرگ تری روبرو می باشد زیرا ترجمه تخصصی متون گفتاردرمانی از انگلیسی به فارسی برای مترجمان کاری آسان تر می باشد .
زیرا مترجم متخصص تنها با دارا بودن مهارت آشنایی کامل با دایره لغات تخصصی و اصطلاحات پرکاربرد میتواند متون تخصصی سفارشات را با رعایت کامل استانداردهای بین المللی ترجمه نماید اما برای ترجمه گفتار درمانی به انگلیسی تنها مهارت مترجمین متخصص تحصیل کرده در رشته تخصصی گفتاردرمانی، که احاطه و تسلط کامل بر دایره لغات تخصصی و اصطلاحات پرکاربرد پاسخگو نمیباشد ،بلکه مترجمین متخصص زمانی از عهده ترجمه گفتار درمانی به انگلیسی (عموما برای مقالات تخصصی و یا مقالات بین المللی )برمیآیند که بتوانند قواعد دستوری زبان انتشار دهنده مقالات را به خوبی رعایت کنند .اینگونه ما شاهده ترجمه تخصصی مقالات از فارسی به انگلیسی با سطح کیفی بالا و در حد استانداردهای بین المللی می باشیم و برای ترجمه چنین مقالاتی مترجمین متخصص با موفقیت انسجام متن و محتوا را در مسیر کامل ترجمه حفظ نموده اند.
ثبت سفارشات گفتاردرمانی در سامانه ملی ترجمه توسط معتبرترین و متخصص ترین مترجم که تحصیل کردگان در مقاطع عالی ارشد و دکترای رشته تخصصی گفتار درمانی میباشند صورت می پذیرد .سفارشات تخصصی مرتبط با رشته تخصصی گفتاردرمانی شامل ترجمه مقاله تخصصی و ترجمه تخصصی کتب و انجام تحقیقات پژوهشی و غیره می باشد .یادآوری این نکته خالی از لطف نمی باشد بعد از ترجمه تخصصی کامل توسط مترجمین متخصص برای ترجمه سفارشات متون تخصصی رشته گفتار درمانی گروه بازبینی سامانه ملی ترجمه برای ترجمه تخصصی قرار دارند این گروه بعد از ترجمه کامل سفارشات توسط مترجمین متخصص برای رفع اشکالات احتمالی، سفارشات ترجمه را مورد بازبینی قرار داده و اشکالات احتمالی متون را از لحاظ قواعد دستوری و معنایی رفع می نمایند.
- Protocol for Correcting Residual Errors with Spectral, ULtrasound, Traditional Speech therapy Randomized Controlled Trial (C-RESULTS RCT)
Speech sound disorder in childhood poses a barrier to academic and social participation, with potentially lifelong consequences for educational and occupational outcomes. While most speech errors resolve by the late school-age years, between 2 and 5% of speakers exhibit residual speech errors (RSE) that persist through adolescence or even adulthood. Previous findings from small-scale studies suggest that interventions incorporating visual biofeedback can outperform traditional motor-based treatment approaches for children with RSE, but this question has not been investigated in a well-powered randomized controlled trial.
·Clinical Considerations in Speech and Language Therapy in Turkish Transgender Population
Transgender people aim to increase and improve their quality of life by demanding voice and communication intervention services, however clinical recommendations regarding assessment and intervention in the transgender population are based on others' practice, experiences, assumptions. The present study aims to give clinical considerations in speech and language therapy for transgender populations.
Thirty-one transgender subjects were taken in to the present study after applying exclusion criteria. Participants were excluded:
• If they do not define themselves as transgendered and have not taken part in any reassignment of gender procedure and also they do not want to take part in any gender procedures.
The participants were given a survey, which included questions related to demographic information, procedures during transition process, priorities regarding to voice and nonverbal communication and as a final part awareness and knowledge in speech and language therapy.
·Comparison of motor-phonetic versus phonetic-phonological speech therapy approaches in patients with a cleft (lip and) palate: a study in Uganda
At present, there is growing interest in combined phonetic-phonological approaches to treat active speech errors in children with a cleft (lip and) palate (CP ± L). Unfortunately, evidence for these type of speech interventions in this population is lacking. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of speech intervention in Ugandan patients with CP ± L. Moreover, a comparison was made between a motor-phonetic and a phonetic-phonological speech intervention.
Eight patients (median age: 11.26y) with an isolated CP ± L were assigned into a group receiving motor-phonetic treatment (n = 4) or a group receiving combined phonetic-phonological treatment (n = 4). The participants received 6h of individual speech therapy. In both groups, perceptual and instrumental speech evaluations were performed to evaluate the patients' speech before and after the intervention.
·The Effect of Age at Cochlear Implantation on Speech and Auditory Performances in Prelingually Deaf Children
To understand the effect of age at implantation on speech and auditory performances of 74 prelingually deaf Indian children after using cochlear implants for 3, 6 and 12 months. We also evaluate the causes of late implantation in this population. Seventy four children who underwent cochlear implantation from December 2013 to December 2015 in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Cancer in SMS Medical College, Jaipur were participated in this study. To compare the efficacy of cochlear implant, candidates are classified into 2 groups according to the age at the time of implantation: 1–4 years and 4.1–7 years. The sample size is 37 in both age groups. Their auditory performance and speech intelligibility were rated using the Revised Categories of Auditory Perception scales, Speech Intelligibility Rating scales and Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale. The evaluations were made before implantation and 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation. The scores when compared in both the groups revealed that the results were comparable and significant after 12 months of follow up while the scores were not significant after 3 and 6 months. The results were statistically significant when baseline is compared with different postoperative stages. The children implanted before the age of 4 years had significantly better auditory and linguistic performances. At least 12 months of audio-verbal rehabilitation and speech and language therapy are required to compare the effects of cochlear implant in any set of children. Our study shows that hearing impaired children who receive cochlear implantation below 4 years of age acquires better auditory ability for developing language skills.
·Why shouldn’t we do that on placement if we’re doing it in the real world? Differences between undergraduate and graduate identities in speech and language therapy
Healthcare graduates are often characterised as ill-prepared for workplace entry. Historically, research on health professional’s work preparedness has focused on the quality of graduates’ clinical knowledge, skills and problem-solving. This ignores the role of professional identity formation in determining readiness for clinical practice. Yet, professional identity defines graduate self-perception, how others perceive them and informs clinical behaviour. The scholarship of identity formation at the transition from undergraduate to graduate is characterised by individual (cognitive) rather than relational (sociocultural) perspectives. Yet there is growing recognition that identity formation is not just individually mediated, but is also constructed between individuals and social context. The aim of this study was to explore professional identity formation among undergraduates and graduates from one healthcare profession (speech and language therapy-SLT) using a sociocultural theoretical standpoint. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used. Final (4th) year SLT undergraduate students and graduate SLTs with less than 2 years’ clinical experience participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to describe patterns in the data, which were subsequently subjected to interpretation informed by the constructs of Figured Worlds. Data analysis revealed that undergraduate professional identity was characterised by dependency, self-centredness (as opposed to patient-centredness), and a naïve role concept. Graduate identity on the other hand included expectations of self-sufficiency, patient-centredness and a more nuanced perception of the professional role. Undergraduates have naïve, prototypical understandings of what it is to be a graduate practitioner. The nature of undergraduate clinical placement hinders meaningful identity development. This suggests that curriculums should facilitate undergraduates to act with meaningful autonomy and to be positioned in more patient-centred roles, e.g. involvement in the decision-making process for patients. Graduates may then feel more authentic as autonomous professionals in their early graduate posts. This leads to better graduate, patient and service outcomes.
·Impact of speech rate and mouth opening on hypernasality and speech intelligibility in children with a cleft (lip and) palate
this study evaluated the effectiveness of different speech techniques (i.e. modification of speech rate and/or mouth opening) for the rehabilitation of hypernasality in children with a cleft palate with or without a cleft lip (CP±L). The impact of speech rate and/or mouth opening was investigated on both hypernasality and speech intelligibility.
thirteen patients with CP±L and perceived hypernasality (mean age: 10y5m) and 13 age and gender matched children without CP±L were included. Children were asked to read an oral and oronasal text passage in ten different speaking conditions where speech rate and/or mouth opening was manipulated. Outcome measures included instrumental measurements of hypernasality and perceptual ratings of speech intelligibility and hypernasality.
speaking with a lower speech rate had a statistically significant, positive influence on objective measures of hypernasality in both groups, especially when elicited by a metronome. An increased mouth opening and the combination of both techniques was only effective in the control group. Moreover, it was found that children without CP ±L were less intelligible when speaking with a decreased mouth opening.
·Rehabilitation and Prognosis of Developmental Disorders of Speech and Language
Several behavioural speech-language therapies have been proven in meta-analyses and systematic reviews to be effective in the treatment of developmental disorders of speech and language (DDSL), at least in the short term. Computerised intervention programmes have not shown convincing evidence for their superiority over conventional treatment. Additional interventions may help to improve a child’s language outcome, such as occupational therapy that addresses the challenges in children’s daily occupations (e.g. self-care, being productive, leisure) or physiotherapy for neuromotor disorders and sensorimotor difficulties. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions are usually applied for children with profound impairment of their communication. Duties of phoniatricians in the management of DDSL comprise an early detection; diagnostics by using valid assessment tools, including the identification of co-morbidities; making the diagnosis; parent counselling; setting-up of an intervention plan; and supervision and regular outcome assessment of treatment and rehabilitation.
The prognosis of DDSL depends on factors such as type of the language disorder, symptom severity for the specific linguistic domains, co-morbidities, multi-level risk factors such as concomitant problems in the family environment (e.g. poverty, socio-economic disadvantage, unstimulating environment) and other individual conditions (e.g. preterm birth, poor health, recurrent otitis media). In general, a trend for improvement can be observed over time. Residual symptoms, however, persist, carrying into mid-childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and individuals may suffer from lifelong consequences such as communication disorders, psychosocial disturbances, academic deficits and behavioural problems. Substantial interindividual outcome differences can be found. Children who receive early and appropriate therapy are more likely to have a better outcome.
·Vocal Parameters in Individuals with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review
Studies were identified and selected by searching for articles on the subject published in any journal, using pre-established descriptors: “spinal cord injury,” “speech,” “lang$,” “speech-lang$,” and “voice” (“traumatismos da medula espinal,” “fala,” “fona$,” “fonoaud$,” and “voz” in Brazilian Portuguese). All the phases of the study were conducted independently by the researchers and in the event of disagreement, a final decision was reached by consensus. The articles selected were critically assessed based on their objectives, treatment, and assessment criteria and methods, results and conclusions, as well their level of scientific evidence.
A total of 70 scientific articles were identified, eight of which were considered valid based on the inclusion criteria. Research on the contribution of speech therapy to patients with SCI is scarce, particularly regarding voice assessment and treatment. Descriptive and observational studies predominated, with a small sample. Data collection was predominated cross-sectional, which made it possible to identify evaluation and intervention techniques, but the methodologies described preclude generalizations. The results indicated that the parameters of the respiratory function and vocal production in patients with traumatic SCI were reduced lung capacity, presence of voice problems, presence of perceived voice problems, and altered activation of accessory respiratory muscle.
·Special Kinds of Developmental Disorders of Speech and Language
Developmental disorders of speech and language (DDSL) may be subclassified into specific DDSL (SDDSL) and DDSL associated with language-relevant comorbidities (DDSLC). For SDDSL (synonym: primary or specific language impairment, SLI), other language-relevant comorbidities or conditions are excluded. They are mainly caused by genetic factors. For DDSLC (synonym: secondary language impairment), either the comorbidity is the only reason for the language disorder or additional factors are present that are also causal of SDDSL. Comorbid disorders may be persistent (e.g. sensorineural hearing loss) or intermittent (e.g. otitis media with effusion). Hearing loss, syndromes, pervasive disorders such as autism-spectrum disorders, other developmental disorders and intellectual disability are important comorbid disorders affecting speech and language development. Non-pathological sociogenic or environmental factors, such as adverse social conditions, may cause abnormalities in speech-language development and have to be discerned from DDSL. Only DDSL needs a language therapy, but both DDSL and sociogenically caused language abnormalities benefit from more and high-quality language input.
A special entity of developmental speech-language disorders is childhood apraxia of speech (CAS; synonym: developmental verbal dyspraxia), a neurological speech sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of speech-related movements are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits. CAS is associated with impaired planning or programming of spatiotemporal patterns of movement sequences, leading to errors in speech sound production and prosody.
This chapter focuses on the above-named differential diagnoses of developmental speech-language disorders and their aetiology. Additionally it highlights the specific diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CAS.
·Rehabilitation of telephone communication in cochlear-implanted adults
Telephone use correlates with quality of life, and is one of the most important expectations of cochlear implant candidates. The aim of the present study was to assess the benefit of a progressive intensive 18-session training program, conducted by telephone in cochlear implant recipients.
Material and methods
Nine cochlear-implanted adults underwent telerehabilitation focused on telephone use, with before-and-after assessment of: auditory performance, on Lafon monosyllabic words and MBAA sentences in quiet, cocktail-party noise and by phone; telephone use, on ad-hoc surveys and number of calls per week; and quality of life on ERSA and APHAB questionnaires.
Before training, monosyllabic word comprehension was poorer by telephone than by direct voice (64 ± 5.7% vs. 26 ± 5.3%; P < 0.05). After the 6-week training, there was improvement in the “note taking” telephone message task (85.0 ± 3.7 vs. 50.0 ± 9.0 out of 100; P < 0.001), daily phone use (57.0 ± 4.3 vs. 29 ± 5.4 out of 100; P < 0.0001), and number of calls in the week before assessment (0.0 ± 0.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.0; P < 0.0001).